详细grep、sed、awk

[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# cat 1.txt 
1
2
3
4
5
6
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# cat 2.txt 
4
5
6
7
8

[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# grep -f 1.txt 2.txt 
4
5
6
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# grep -f -v 1.txt 2.txt 
grep: -v: No such file or directory
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# grep -v -f 1.txt 2.txt 
7
8

  -e匹配多个模式,-v反转输出,-f匹配多个文件中相同的行

[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# echo "11 22 33 44 55" |xargs -n1 | grep -e "11"
11
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# echo "11 22 33 44 55" |xargs -n1 | grep -e "11" -e "22"
11
22

  -i忽略大小写

[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# echo "AA aa bb " | xargs -n1 | egrep -i "aa"
AA
aa

  -o只输出匹配内容

[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# ifconfig 
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 52:54:00:BE:3B:97  
          inet addr:172.17.0.7  Bcast:172.17.15.255  Mask:255.255.240.0
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:9272287 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:9005522 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:1614323123 (1.5 GiB)  TX bytes:2170651985 (2.0 GiB)

lo        Link encap:Local Loopback  
          inet addr:127.0.0.1  Mask:255.0.0.0
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:65536  Metric:1
          RX packets:194402 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:194402 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0 
          RX bytes:213430544 (203.5 MiB)  TX bytes:213430544 (203.5 MiB)

[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# ifconfig | egrep "172.17.0.7"
          inet addr:172.17.0.7  Bcast:172.17.15.255  Mask:255.255.240.0
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# ifconfig | egrep -o "172.17.0.7"
172.17.0.7

sed

流编辑器,过滤和替换文本。

工作原理:sed命令将当前处理的行读入模式空间进行处理,处理完把结果输出,并清空模式空间。然后再将下一行读入模式空间进行处理输出,以此类推,直至最后一行。

用法:sed [OPTION]... {script-only-if-no-other-script} [input-file]...

sed [选项] '地址 命令' file

选项 描述
-n 不打印模式空间
-e 执行脚本-表达式来处理
-f 脚本文件的内容添加到命令被执行
-i 修改源文件
-r 使用扩展正则表达式
命令 m描述
s/regexp/replacement/ t替换字符串
p d打印当前模式空间
P d打印模式空间的第一行
d s删除模式空间,并且开始下一个循环
D s删除模式空间的第一行,开始下一个循环
= d打印当前行号
a \text d当前行追加文本
i \text d当前行上面插入文本
c \text s所选行替换文本
q l立即退出sed脚本
r z追加文本来自文件
地址 m描述
first~step b步长,每step行,从first开始
$ p匹配最后一行
/regexp/ z正则表达式匹配行
number z只匹配制定行
addr1、addr2 k开始匹配addr1开始,直接addr2行结束
addr1,+N c从addr1行开始,向后的N行
addr1,~N c从addr1行开始,到N行结束
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail /etc/services 
nimgtw          48003/udp               # Nimbus Gateway
3gpp-cbsp       48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
isnetserv       48128/tcp               # Image Systems Network Services
isnetserv       48128/udp               # Image Systems Network Services
blp5            48129/tcp               # Bloomberg locator
blp5            48129/udp               # Bloomberg locator
com-bardac-dw   48556/tcp               # com-bardac-dw
com-bardac-dw   48556/udp               # com-bardac-dw
iqobject        48619/tcp               # iqobject
iqobject        48619/udp               # iqobject
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail /etc/services | sed -n "/blp5/p"  匹配第一行
blp5            48129/tcp               # Bloomberg locator
blp5            48129/udp               # Bloomberg locator
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail /etc/services | sed -n "1p"   匹配第二行
nimgtw          48003/udp               # Nimbus Gateway
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail /etc/services | sed -n "2p"
3gpp-cbsp       48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail /etc/services | sed -n "1,3p"  匹配1-3行
nimgtw          48003/udp               # Nimbus Gateway
3gpp-cbsp       48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
isnetserv       48128/tcp               # Image Systems Network Services
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# seq 10 | sed -n "1~2p"  从1开始,每次跳过一行
1
3
5
7
9
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail /etc/services | sed -n "$p"
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail /etc/services | sed -n '$p'  打印最后一行
iqobject        48619/udp               # iqobject
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail /etc/services | sed -n '$!p'  不打印最后一行
nimgtw          48003/udp               # Nimbus Gateway
3gpp-cbsp       48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
isnetserv       48128/tcp               # Image Systems Network Services
isnetserv       48128/udp               # Image Systems Network Services
blp5            48129/tcp               # Bloomberg locator
blp5            48129/udp               # Bloomberg locator
com-bardac-dw   48556/tcp               # com-bardac-dw
com-bardac-dw   48556/udp               # com-bardac-dw
iqobject        48619/tcp               # iqobject
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail /etc/services | sed -n '/^blp5/,/^com/p'  匹配从blp5到com开头(第一个)的
blp5            48129/tcp               # Bloomberg locator
blp5            48129/udp               # Bloomberg locator
com-bardac-dw   48556/tcp               # com-bardac-dw
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail services | sed '/blp5/d'  删除blp5行,不需要加-n
nimgtw          48003/udp               # Nimbus Gateway
3gpp-cbsp       48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
isnetserv       48128/tcp               # Image Systems Network Services
isnetserv       48128/udp               # Image Systems Network Services
com-bardac-dw   48556/tcp               # com-bardac-dw
com-bardac-dw   48556/udp               # com-bardac-dw
iqobject        48619/tcp               # iqobject
iqobject        48619/udp               # iqobject
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail services | sed 's/blp5/test/'  将blp5替换为test,(没有加全局就只修改第一个匹配到的字符串)
nimgtw          48003/udp               # Nimbus Gateway
3gpp-cbsp       48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
isnetserv       48128/tcp               # Image Systems Network Services
isnetserv       48128/udp               # Image Systems Network Services
test            48129/tcp               # Bloomberg locator
test            48129/udp               # Bloomberg locator
com-bardac-dw   48556/tcp               # com-bardac-dw
com-bardac-dw   48556/udp               # com-bardac-dw
iqobject        48619/tcp               # iqobject
iqobject        48619/udp               # iqobject
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail services | sed 's/blp5/test/g'  替换所有的blp5为test
nimgtw          48003/udp               # Nimbus Gateway
3gpp-cbsp       48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
isnetserv       48128/tcp               # Image Systems Network Services
isnetserv       48128/udp               # Image Systems Network Services
test            48129/tcp               # Bloomberg locator
test            48129/udp               # Bloomberg locator
com-bardac-dw   48556/tcp               # com-bardac-dw
com-bardac-dw   48556/udp               # com-bardac-dw
iqobject        48619/tcp               # iqobject
iqobject        48619/udp               # iqobject
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail services |sed '1,5s/blp5/test/g'  替换1-5行的blp5为test
nimgtw          48003/udp               # Nimbus Gateway
3gpp-cbsp       48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
isnetserv       48128/tcp               # Image Systems Network Services
isnetserv       48128/udp               # Image Systems Network Services
test            48129/tcp               # Bloomberg locator
blp5            48129/udp               # Bloomberg locator
com-bardac-dw   48556/tcp               # com-bardac-dw
com-bardac-dw   48556/udp               # com-bardac-dw
iqobject        48619/tcp               # iqobject
iqobject        48619/udp               # iqobject
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail services | sed 's/nimgtw/test/;s/udp/ll/'  对前面匹配到结果中的内容再进行匹配
test          48003/ll               # Nimbus Gateway
3gpp-cbsp       48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
isnetserv       48128/tcp               # Image Systems Network Services
isnetserv       48128/ll               # Image Systems Network Services
blp5            48129/tcp               # Bloomberg locator
blp5            48129/ll               # Bloomberg locator
com-bardac-dw   48556/tcp               # com-bardac-dw
com-bardac-dw   48556/ll               # com-bardac-dw
iqobject        48619/tcp               # iqobject
iqobject        48619/ll               # iqobject
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail services | sed -r 's/(.*) ([0-9]+.*)(#.*)/\1/'
nimgtw         
3gpp-cbsp      
isnetserv      
isnetserv      
blp5           
blp5           
com-bardac-dw  
com-bardac-dw  
iqobject       
iqobject       
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail services | sed -r 's/(.*) ([0-9]+.*)(#.*)/\1\2/'
nimgtw         48003/udp               
3gpp-cbsp      48049/tcp               
isnetserv      48128/tcp               
isnetserv      48128/udp               
blp5           48129/tcp               
blp5           48129/udp               
com-bardac-dw  48556/tcp               
com-bardac-dw  48556/udp               
iqobject       48619/tcp               
iqobject       48619/udp               
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail services | sed -r 's/(.*) ([0-9]+.*)(#.*)/\1\2\3/'
nimgtw         48003/udp               # Nimbus Gateway
3gpp-cbsp      48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
isnetserv      48128/tcp               # Image Systems Network Services
isnetserv      48128/udp               # Image Systems Network Services
blp5           48129/tcp               # Bloomberg locator
blp5           48129/udp               # Bloomberg locator
com-bardac-dw  48556/tcp               # com-bardac-dw
com-bardac-dw  48556/udp               # com-bardac-dw
iqobject       48619/tcp               # iqobject
iqobject       48619/udp               # iqobject
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# seq 10 |sed '/5/,+3s/^/#/'  加注释
1
2
3
4
#5
#6
#7
#8
9
10
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# seq 10 | sed '5s/.*/&\ntest/'  &的作用是取前面所匹配到的结果
1
2
3
4
5
test
6
7
8
9
10
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# seq 10 | sed '5s/.*/test\n&/'
1
2
3
4
test
5
6
7
8
9
10
    
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# seq 10 |sed 'n;n;s/^/ll/'
1
2
ll3
4
5
ll6
7
8
ll9
10

awk

awk是一个处理文本的编程语言工具,能用简短的程序处理输入文件、数据排序、计算以及生产报表等等。

在Linux系统下默认awk是gawk,它是awk的GUN版本。可以通过命令查看应用的版本:ll /bin/awk

基本的命令语法:awk option 'patten {action}' file

其中pattern表示AWK在数据中查找的内容,而action是在找到匹配内容时所执行的一系列命令。花括号用于根据特定的模式对一系列指令进行分组。

pattern参数可以是egrep正则表达式的任意一个,使用/re/再加上一些样式匹配,匹配方式与sed类似,也可以使用“,”分开两样式以选个某个范围。

awk处理的工作方式与数据库类似,支持对记录和字段处理,这也是grep和sed不能实现的。

在awk中,缺省的情况下将文本文件中一行视为一个记录,而将一行中的某一部分作为记录中的一个字段,用1,2,3....数字的方式顺序的表示行(记录)中的不同字段。用$后跟数字,引用对应的字段,以逗号分割,0表示整个行。

选项 m描述
-f program-file c从文件中读取awk程序源文件
-F fs z指定fs为输入字段分隔符
-v var=value b变量赋值
--posix z只支持POSIX正则表达式

Pattern Description
BEGIN{ } g给程序赋予初始状态,先执行的工作
END{ } c程序结束之后执行的一些扫尾工作
/regular expression/ w为每个输入记录匹配正则表达式
pattern && pattern l逻辑and,满足两个模式

pattern || pattern

逻辑或,满足其中一个模式
! pattern l逻辑非,不满足模式
pattern1,pattern2 f范围模式,匹配所以1的记录,直到匹配到模式2
 
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail services 
nimgtw          48003/udp               # Nimbus Gateway
3gpp-cbsp       48049/tcp               # 3GPP Cell Broadcast Service Protocol
isnetserv       48128/tcp               # Image Systems Network Services
isnetserv       48128/udp               # Image Systems Network Services
blp5            48129/tcp               # Bloomberg locator
blp5            48129/udp               # Bloomberg locator
com-bardac-dw   48556/tcp               # com-bardac-dw
com-bardac-dw   48556/udp               # com-bardac-dw
iqobject        48619/tcp               # iqobject
iqobject        48619/udp               # iqobject
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# tail services | awk -F '/' '{print $1}'  指定/为分割符,打印出第一部分
nimgtw          48003
3gpp-cbsp       48049
isnetserv       48128
isnetserv       48128
blp5            48129
blp5            48129
com-bardac-dw   48556
com-bardac-dw   48556
iqobject        48619
iqobject        48619
[root@VM_0_7_centos ~]# awk -va="123" 'BEGIN{print a}'
123
[root@VM_0_7_centos ~]# a=456
[root@VM_0_7_centos ~]# awk -va=$a 'BEGIN{print a}'
456

  

 

[root@Gin scripts]# awk '{print $0}' /etc/passwd
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin
.....................................................
 
[root@Gin scripts]# echo hhh|awk '{print "hello,world"}'
hello,world
 
[root@Gin scripts]# awk '{print "hiya"}' /etc/passwd
hiya
hiya
hiya
hiya
...............................................

调用awk时,指定/etc/passwd作为输入文件,执行awk时,它依次对/etc/passwd中的每一行执行print命令。

所有输出都发送到stdout,所得到的结果与执行cat /etc/passwd完全相同。

[root@VM_0_7_centos ~]# awk -F":" '{print $1}' /etc/passwd
root
bin
daemon
adm
lp
sync
shutdown
halt
mail
uucp
operator
games
gopher
ftp
nobody
vcsa
abrt
ntp
saslauth
postfix
sshd
dbus
tcpdump
cairui
nginx
mysql
zabbix
[root@VM_0_7_centos ~]# awk -F":" '{print $0}' /etc/passwd
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin
daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin
adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin
lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin
sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync
shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown
halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt
mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologin
uucp:x:10:14:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/sbin/nologin
operator:x:11:0:operator:/root:/sbin/nologin
games:x:12:100:games:/usr/games:/sbin/nologin
gopher:x:13:30:gopher:/var/gopher:/sbin/nologin
ftp:x:14:50:FTP User:/var/ftp:/sbin/nologin
nobody:x:99:99:Nobody:/:/sbin/nologin
vcsa:x:69:69:virtual console memory owner:/dev:/sbin/nologin
abrt:x:173:173::/etc/abrt:/sbin/nologin
ntp:x:38:38::/etc/ntp:/sbin/nologin
saslauth:x:499:76:Saslauthd user:/var/empty/saslauth:/sbin/nologin
postfix:x:89:89::/var/spool/postfix:/sbin/nologin
sshd:x:74:74:Privilege-separated SSH:/var/empty/sshd:/sbin/nologin
dbus:x:81:81:System message bus:/:/sbin/nologin
tcpdump:x:72:72::/:/sbin/nologin
cairui:x:500:500::/home/cairui:/bin/bash
nginx:x:501:501::/home/nginx:/sbin/nologin
mysql:x:502:502::/home/mysql:/sbin/nologin
zabbix:x:503:503::/home/zabbix:/sbin/nologin

  打印1个100行文本的第20到30行

[root@VM_0_7_centos ~]# seq 100 | awk '{if(NR>=20 && NR
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# awk -F"[ ,]+" '{print $3" "$6}' test 
cai is
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# cat test 
I am cai,my qq is
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# awk '{count++;print $0;} END{print "user count is ",count}' /etc/passwd
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin
daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin
adm:x:3:4:adm:/var/adm:/sbin/nologin
lp:x:4:7:lp:/var/spool/lpd:/sbin/nologin
sync:x:5:0:sync:/sbin:/bin/sync
shutdown:x:6:0:shutdown:/sbin:/sbin/shutdown
halt:x:7:0:halt:/sbin:/sbin/halt
mail:x:8:12:mail:/var/spool/mail:/sbin/nologin
uucp:x:10:14:uucp:/var/spool/uucp:/sbin/nologin
operator:x:11:0:operator:/root:/sbin/nologin
games:x:12:100:games:/usr/games:/sbin/nologin
gopher:x:13:30:gopher:/var/gopher:/sbin/nologin
ftp:x:14:50:FTP User:/var/ftp:/sbin/nologin
nobody:x:99:99:Nobody:/:/sbin/nologin
vcsa:x:69:69:virtual console memory owner:/dev:/sbin/nologin
abrt:x:173:173::/etc/abrt:/sbin/nologin
ntp:x:38:38::/etc/ntp:/sbin/nologin
saslauth:x:499:76:Saslauthd user:/var/empty/saslauth:/sbin/nologin
postfix:x:89:89::/var/spool/postfix:/sbin/nologin
sshd:x:74:74:Privilege-separated SSH:/var/empty/sshd:/sbin/nologin
dbus:x:81:81:System message bus:/:/sbin/nologin
tcpdump:x:72:72::/:/sbin/nologin
cairui:x:500:500::/home/cairui:/bin/bash
nginx:x:501:501::/home/nginx:/sbin/nologin
mysql:x:502:502::/home/mysql:/sbin/nologin
zabbix:x:503:503::/home/zabbix:/sbin/nologin
user count is  27
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# ll
total 16
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  12 Mar 21 11:08 1.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  11 Mar 21 11:08 2.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 616 Mar 21 13:44 services
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  18 Mar 22 14:30 test
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# ll |awk 'BEGIN{size=0;} {size=size+$5} END{print "[end] size is ",size}'  统计所占的字节数
[end] size is  657

运算符

[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# awk 'BEGIN{a=5;a+=5;print a}'
10
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# awk 'BEGIN{a=1;b=2;print (a>2&&b>1,a=1||b>1)}'
0 1
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# awk 'BEGIN{a=11;if(a>=9){print "ok"}}'
ok
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# awk -F ":" 'NF==8{print $0}' ll  打印字段数为8的行
zabbix:x:503:503::/home/zabbix:/sbin/nologin:ll
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# cat ll
tcpdump:x:72:72::/:/sbin/nologin
cairui:x:500:500::/home/cairui:/bin/bash
nginx:x:501:501::/home/nginx:/sbin/nologin
mysql:x:502:502::/home/mysql:/sbin/nologin
zabbix:x:503:503::/home/zabbix:/sbin/nologin:ll
[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# ifconfig eth0
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 52:54:00:BE:3B:97  
          inet addr:172.17.0.7  Bcast:172.17.15.255  Mask:255.255.240.0
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:10059201 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:9797173 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000 
          RX bytes:1673765442 (1.5 GiB)  TX bytes:2246121551 (2.0 GiB)

[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# ifconfig eth0 | awk -F [" ":]+ 'NR==2{print $4}'  NR==2是取第二行
172.17.0.7

正则

[root@VM_0_7_centos tmp]# awk '/root/{print $0}' /etc/passwd  打印所有root行
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
operator:x:11:0:operator:/root:/sbin/nologin

awk中的if

{
        if ($1=="foo"){
                if($2=="foo"){
                        print "uno"
                }else{
                        print "one"
                }
        }elseif($1=="bar"){
                print "two"
        }else{
                print "three"
        }
}

  awk参考:https://www.cnblogs.com/ginvip/p/6352157.html

文章来源: 详细grep、sed、awk

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